OFF episodes may limit people with Parkinson's disease in varying ways

Getting the Complete Picture of PD

Click on the circles below to see how Morning and Unpredictable OFF episodes may impact your patients.

References

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  2. Adler CH. Relevance of motor complications in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 2002;58(4 suppl 1):S51-S56.
  3. Martínez-Fernández R, Schmitt E, Martinez-Martin P, Krack P. The hidden sister of motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease: A review on nonmotor fluctuations. Mov Disord. 2016;31:1080-1094.
  4. Bhidayasiri R, Trenkwalder C. Getting a good night sleep? The importance of recognizing and treating nocturnal hypokinesia in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2018 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.01.008. [Epub ahead of print]
  5. Chou KL, Stacy M, Simuni T, et al. The spectrum of "off" in Parkinson's disease: What have we learned over 40 years? Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2018 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.02.001. [Epub ahead of print]
  6. Rizos A, Martinez-Martin P, Odin P, et al. Characterizing motor and non-motor aspects of early-morning off periods in Parkinson's disease: an international multicenter study. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2014;20:1231-1235.
  7. Olanow CW, Stern MG, Sethi K. The scientific and clinical basis for the treatment of Parkinson disease. Neurology. 2009;72(suppl 4):S1-S136.
  8. Fahn S. Parkinsonism: clinical features and differential diagnosis. In: Fahn S, Jankovic J, Hallett M, eds. Principles and Practice of Movement Disorders. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Ltd Inc, BV; 2011.
  9. Costa A, Caltagirone C. Individual differences in approach-avoidance aptitude: some clues from research on Parkinson’s disease. Front Syst Neurosci. 2015;9:43. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2015.00043.